The rise of social media and the proliferation of online communications channels have further challenged the already ambiguous role of media in incidents of conflict, communal violence and terror. In a diverse range of contexts and employing diverse methodological approaches, the papers in this session consider related aspects of this problem. How do media actors understand and frame the boundaries between terrorism and political protest, or between hate speech and political expression? In what circumstances can media provide platforms for deliberation and engagement or manipulation and propaganda? Are they echo chambers or do they fuel the hype?