In the age of globalization, not only the capital, goods, and information, but also human beings are highly mobilized. This tendency brings about many positive outcomes, such as high economical productivity, or cultural diversity. However, on the other hand, some side effects can also be pointed out. The backlash nationalism found in many countries today must be one of the examples. In addition to this, there is also a risk that the very basis of democracy can be eroded. For democracy, it is necessary that those who are in charge of political decision-makings and those who abide by political decisions are mostly overlapped. Otherwise, the very idea of self-determination might be at risk. Especially in welfare-states, if the ranges of fiscal contributors and welfare beneficiaries are not the same, there will be all the arguments about “welfare free-ridings”, and the sustainability of the system itself will be jeopardized. Seeing the importance of this problem, we must say political theory has not been sensitive enough about it so far. In this session, political theorists and a scholar of comparative politics from Europe and Japan will try to explore the problem, and will show some theoretical approaches to it.