The reconfiguration of the current world order within the contemporary international society constitutes the general framework of our reflection.
Emerging countries such as Brazil, Russia, India and China aim to weigh on the course of history and to re-shape a balance of powers dating back to the end of the twentieth century. These countries intensify their external policies towards strategic areas rich in raw materials, especially in Africa, where Western nations also have interests. The persistence of global poverty, according to Pogge, refers to global justice, since this phenomenon results from a world order that structurally endorse an injustice which, furthermore, is not in line with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
To safeguard such universal principles, the signatories – even more so if they are involved in global institutions such as the UN, the IMF and the World Bank – must be able to achieve this goal. For Pogge, international institutions could claim some legitimacy only when they respect these moral rights. A globalization thus begins between countries of the "South". International actors (the BRICS) are willing to compete with the western world, arguing that they represent more than 40% of the world's population and a quarter of the world's GDP. Politicians, policy-makers, economists and academics want to create a typology that reflects what emergence is, and which could serve as a benchmark for countries wishing to switch from their economic stagnation to that of emerging power.
Do emerging powers have the capacity to change an international order that a minority of actors – taking advantage of a historically unfair situation – will tend to safeguard against all reforms? In what sense(s) can emerging countries endorse this reformist posture? Will they seek to find a place in the heart of the Pantheon of the Great Powers, assuming, moreover, the right to speak for the majority?